Best of 2021: Comparison of Three Coronavirus Vaccines Save
On Feb. 27, the Food and Drug Administration announced it has issued an emergency use authorization for Johnson & Johnson’s one-dose Covid vaccine, making it the third COVID-19 vaccine to be commercially available. We've compiled a comparison table and some key information relevant to your delivering patient guidance henceforth.
- Important to note that COVID vaccine efficacy varies by country (generally higher in the USA) and with the age group under study (sometimes lower in elderly individuals)
- None of these are live or replicating vaccines.
|EUA approval||12/11/20||12/18/20||2/27/21||Not submitted|
|Type||mRNA||mRNA||Adenovirus vector||Adenovirus (modified)|
(2 doses under study)
|Protection against Severe Dz||92%||88.9%||85%|
|Protection from COVID Death||85%||(6 deaths)||100%||100%|
|Protection from COVID Hospitalization||87%||89%||100%||100%|
|Storage Temp||- 94°F||-4°F||36°F and 46°F||36°F and 46°F|
None of these have been studied in children. Pfizer’s vaccine is approved for those over 16 years, while the other 3 have been studied in adults > 18 yrs.
- None of these have been studied in autoimmune, or immunosuppressed or pregnant individuals
- "Reactogenicity" (referring to transient mild to moderate adverse effects) may occur in the first 7 days and include: injection site pain, fatigue, headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, flu-like symptoms.
- With Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, side effects were more common after the second dose.
- Side effects were more common in younger adults, and less so in older adults
- Anaphylaxis is exceedingly rare, but occurs usually within 15 min of injection; hence the reason subjects are advised to be observed for a short period after injection. Reported anaphylaxis rates: Moderna: 2.5 cases per one million doses; Pfizer: 4.7 cases per million doses. Some have suggested that anaphylaxis and more severe reaction are more likely in those with a history of severe allergies or prior anaphylaxis
- CDC recommends that "if you have had a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) or an immediate allergic reaction—even if it was not severe—to any ingredient in an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (such as polyethylene glycol), you should not get an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine".
- Vaccine stability: once the Pfizer vaccine vial has been thawed, it must be used within five days; Moderna’s is stable at fridge temperature for 30 days and at room temperature for 12 hours. J&J’s vaccine can be stored at room temperature for 12 hours d that information
- There is no data on the durability of protection (how long am I protected?)
Editor's note: This blog post appeared March 10, 2021 and is being published again today as part of RheumNow's Best of 2021.